Asylum seeker Ahmed Hassan, 18, was found guilty at the Old Bailey after leaving the explosive device packed in a bucket with 2.2kg of screwdrivers, knives, nuts and bolts on the busy train.
The teen was also found guilty of using a chemical to cause an explosion in the Parsons Green terror attack that injured 30 people last September.
The Old Bailey heard Hassan wanted to cause "maximum" carnage to avenge the death of his father, who was blown up in Iraq more than 10 years before, and that he believed it was his "duty to hate Britain".
Hassan denied it, saying he only wanted to make a fire to fulfil a "fugitive fantasy" to be chased by Interpol which was inspired by action films.
But Judge Mr Justice Haddon-Cave told him: "Ahmed Hassan, you have been found guilty by this jury at the Old Bailey of attempted murder on overwhelming evidence.
"I am now going to discuss with counsel the arrangements and timings for sentencing you."
Hassan sat with head bowed and gave no reaction to his conviction.
Passengers suffered facial burns after the incident inside the carriage, with the crude device having been placed in a Lidl bag before it exploded.
After planting the bomb, Hassan fled to Dover, where he was arrested the next day.
Commander Dean Haydon, head of Scotland Yard's Counter Terrorism Command, said Hassan kept his plans a secret from Prevent workers in Surrey.
The officer said: "I describe Hassan as an intelligent and articulate individual that is devious and cunning in equal measures.
"On the one hand he was appearing to engage with the (Prevent) programme but he kept secret what he was planning and plotting. We describe him as a lone actor."
On the bomb's potential, he said: "It was only through good fortune that it only partially exploded. If it had, without a doubt we would have been dealing with many fatalities."
The court had heard Hassan told Home Office officials he was trained by Islamic State "to kill" after he arrived in Britain in the back of a lorry in 2015.
He was taken in by foster parents Penny and Ron Jones MBE, and studied media and photography at Brooklands College in Weybridge.
Gail Walker, principal of Brooklands College in Weybridge, Surrey, where Hassan studied a media course, said: "Ahmed Hassan, who was involved in the Parsons Green Tube bomb, was a student at Brooklands College. A change in his behaviour was noted and reported to Prevent by staff at the college.
"We have a robust safeguarding policy to ensure the safety of all students and staff and we have been assured that at no time were any students or staff at risk.
"Our recent Ofsted 'Good' inspection in November 2017, confirmed that the college 'provides a welcoming and safe environment for all students' and 'creates an ambitious culture where staff and students are expected and are keen to do their best'. This will continue to be our focus."
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