How the National Grid is keeping lights on during lockdown

How the UK national grid is keeping lights on during the coronavirus pandemic: Contingency plans include segregating ‘critical’ employees and even asking engineers to live on-site

  • The National Grid is distancing engineers who are ‘critical’ to on-site operations
  • Its control room HQ is big enough that workers ‘distance themselves physically’
  • The company says it wouldn’t rule out keeping some engineers on-site 24 hours
  • Industry concerns relate to how hard replacing specialised employees would be 
  • Coronavirus symptoms: what are they and should you see a doctor?

The kingpin of Britain’s energy market is working to avoid issues brought on by the coronavirus pandemic, including the loss of ‘critical employees’.  

Specialised staff in self-isolation, the inability to permit engineers to work from home, and an extra demand on domestic power due to home-based lockdowns have all been flagged as potential problems for the National Grid.

For specialised engineers who need to be on-site in order to do their jobs, working from home in lockdown is not an option.

But concerns in the industry are mostly around the loss of ‘critical people’, both on-site and in corporate roles, who would be hard to replace effectively if they were infected. 

The industry is one of many adapting to government measures to control the spread of COVID-19, which has killed 437 people in the UK as of Wednesday afternoon.  

Power plants require ‘critical employees’ – specialised staff who work to distribute a counrty’s energy supply

‘Millions of people are now confined to their homes, resorting to teleworking to do their jobs, e-commerce sites to do their shopping, and streaming video platforms to find entertainment,’ wrote Fatih Birol, executive director of the International Energy Agency.

‘A reliable electricity supply underpins all of these services, as well as powering the devices most of us take for granted such as fridges, washing machines and light bulbs.

‘Organisations need to ensure staff members remain safe as they carry out their critical work.’

Birol warned in a LinkedIn post at the weekend that coronavirus has ‘reminded us of the essential role of skilled personnel’. 

‘Network maintenance and repair is labour intensive and has to be done on site by workers and engineers,’ he said.  

‘A key lesson of the current crisis is to make sure that electricity systems have sufficient resources not just of physical assets but also human capital.’

POPULAR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 

Solar – light and heat from the sun. 

Wind – through wind turbines to turn electric generators. 

Hydro – captured from falling or fast-running water. 

Tidal – energy from the rise and fall of sea levels. 

Geothermal – energy generated and stored in the Earth.

Biomass – organic material burnt to release stored energy from the sun.

Source:  EDF Energy 

The National Grid, which owns Britain’s electric power transmission network, says it has plans in place to keep electricity running throughout the pandemic, however long it lasts. 

‘We have well-developed procedures in place to manage the effects of a pandemic,’ the National Grid said in an official statement. 

‘We have asked all our employees who do not need to be onsite to work from home where possible, in line with government guidance.

‘This measure has been introduced to limit the spread of the virus, protect the health and safety of all our people, and ensure those in operational roles can continue to do their jobs.’ 

The National Grid passes energy to local distribution network operators who then reduce the voltage and distribute electricity to homes around the country.

Its engineers at power plants are trained in multiple roles, meaning they can potentially switch between jobs to cover for employees, while its operational sites are secure ‘with a wide range of resilience and security measures’, it claims. 

New measures introduced enforce a segregation of ‘critical employees’ and a complete restriction on any visitors.

While it wouldn’t be drawn into explaining how a critical employee is defined, or how segregation would be enforced, reports from the US say such engineers are being asked to live and work on-site for the near future to prevent the risk of infection. 

National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network serving Great Britain. It passes high-voltage electricity around the grid and pass it to local distribution network operators, who sell to customers

The National Grid told MailOnline that, while this is not something it’s doing at the moment, it ‘wouldn’t rule it out’ in the future. 

Engineers are coming and going to work at the National Grid’s two ‘top secret’ national control rooms at undisclosed locations – one of which is a back-up, although it’s currently using both, a spokesperson told MailOnline. 

Anyone in the control room is defined as a critical employee. COVID-19-fighting measures in place to protect them include an increased use of sanitisers, as well as taking advantage of the control rooms’ fairly wide open spaces.  

Its control centres have fully operational back-up locations, while visitor access to its electricity and gas control rooms have been ceased to prevent new infections.  

‘We have comprehensive and well-developed procedures in place to manage the effects of a pandemic and do not anticipate any issues in continuing to reliably supply gas and electricity,’ it said. 

The National Grid has also analysed anticipated effects on electricity supply and demand of mass self-isolation.

Demand across the country is actually expected to decrease, it says, mostly due to a reduction in energy use from industrial consumers.

The National Grid does not anticipate any issues in continuing to reliably supply electricity – due to the reduction in electricity use on behalf of large industrial businesses

This fortunately leaves extra capacity to cater for the increase in domestic demand as people have to stay at home.

Abrupt slowdown in industrial and business activity across much of Europe has reduced electricity demand, Birol of the International Energy Agency agrees.

But natural gas power plants lose money if they are used only from time to time, adding to the pressure they have to face. 

Ofgem, the government-backed industry regular for electricity and gas, told MailOnline that knows the pandemic will present challenges and it is working with government and industry to discuss their ‘readiness’ for them.

‘We expect industry to alert us to any issues that arise, and keep us informed of their plans to deal with these issues,’ it said in a statement.

‘Critical operations such as National Grid have put measures in place to deal with the situation whilst following the latest government guidance, designed to ensure they can continue to operate without disruption.’

Utility companies in the energy industry who buy energy that originated at the National Grid and sell it on to customers – including British Gas, EDN and Npower – all have workers who are critical to maintaining energy supplies and serving consumers, from conducting gas readings to answering helplines. 

‘It is imperative that these workers continue to do this important work, whilst also minimising the risk of catching or passing on the virus,’ Ofgem said.

British Gas said in an email to customers that it would be cancelling non-essential engineer appointments, as well as prioritising emergencies and the most vulnerable. 

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE CORONAVIRUS?

What is the coronavirus? 

A coronavirus is a type of virus which can cause illness in animals and people. Viruses break into cells inside their host and use them to reproduce itself and disrupt the body’s normal functions. Coronaviruses are named after the Latin word ‘corona’, which means crown, because they are encased by a spiked shell which resembles a royal crown.

The coronavirus from Wuhan is one which has never been seen before this outbreak. It has been named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The name stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2.

Experts say the bug, which has killed around one in 50 patients since the outbreak began in December, is a ‘sister’ of the SARS illness which hit China in 2002, so has been named after it.

The disease that the virus causes has been named COVID-19, which stands for coronavirus disease 2019.

Dr Helena Maier, from the Pirbright Institute, said: ‘Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that infect a wide range of different species including humans, cattle, pigs, chickens, dogs, cats and wild animals. 

‘Until this new coronavirus was identified, there were only six different coronaviruses known to infect humans. Four of these cause a mild common cold-type illness, but since 2002 there has been the emergence of two new coronaviruses that can infect humans and result in more severe disease (Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses). 

‘Coronaviruses are known to be able to occasionally jump from one species to another and that is what happened in the case of SARS, MERS and the new coronavirus. The animal origin of the new coronavirus is not yet known.’ 

The first human cases were publicly reported from the Chinese city of Wuhan, where approximately 11million people live, after medics first started publicly reporting infections on December 31.

By January 8, 59 suspected cases had been reported and seven people were in critical condition. Tests were developed for the new virus and recorded cases started to surge.

The first person died that week and, by January 16, two were dead and 41 cases were confirmed. The next day, scientists predicted that 1,700 people had become infected, possibly up to 7,000. 

Where does the virus come from?

According to scientists, the virus almost certainly came from bats. Coronaviruses in general tend to originate in animals – the similar SARS and MERS viruses are believed to have originated in civet cats and camels, respectively.

The first cases of COVID-19 came from people visiting or working in a live animal market in Wuhan, which has since been closed down for investigation.

Although the market is officially a seafood market, other dead and living animals were being sold there, including wolf cubs, salamanders, snakes, peacocks, porcupines and camel meat. 

A study by the Wuhan Institute of Virology, published in February 2020 in the scientific journal Nature, found that the genetic make-up virus samples found in patients in China is 96 per cent identical to a coronavirus they found in bats.

However, there were not many bats at the market so scientists say it was likely there was an animal which acted as a middle-man, contracting it from a bat before then transmitting it to a human. It has not yet been confirmed what type of animal this was.

Dr Michael Skinner, a virologist at Imperial College London, was not involved with the research but said: ‘The discovery definitely places the origin of nCoV in bats in China.

‘We still do not know whether another species served as an intermediate host to amplify the virus, and possibly even to bring it to the market, nor what species that host might have been.’  

So far the fatalities are quite low. Why are health experts so worried about it? 

Experts say the international community is concerned about the virus because so little is known about it and it appears to be spreading quickly.

It is similar to SARS, which infected 8,000 people and killed nearly 800 in an outbreak in Asia in 2003, in that it is a type of coronavirus which infects humans’ lungs. It is less deadly than SARS, however, which killed around one in 10 people, compared to approximately one in 50 for COVID-19.

Another reason for concern is that nobody has any immunity to the virus because they’ve never encountered it before. This means it may be able to cause more damage than viruses we come across often, like the flu or common cold.

Speaking at a briefing in January, Oxford University professor, Dr Peter Horby, said: ‘Novel viruses can spread much faster through the population than viruses which circulate all the time because we have no immunity to them.

‘Most seasonal flu viruses have a case fatality rate of less than one in 1,000 people. Here we’re talking about a virus where we don’t understand fully the severity spectrum but it’s possible the case fatality rate could be as high as two per cent.’

If the death rate is truly two per cent, that means two out of every 100 patients who get it will die. 

‘My feeling is it’s lower,’ Dr Horby added. ‘We’re probably missing this iceberg of milder cases. But that’s the current circumstance we’re in.

‘Two per cent case fatality rate is comparable to the Spanish Flu pandemic in 1918 so it is a significant concern globally.’

How does the virus spread?

The illness can spread between people just through coughs and sneezes, making it an extremely contagious infection. And it may also spread even before someone has symptoms.

It is believed to travel in the saliva and even through water in the eyes, therefore close contact, kissing, and sharing cutlery or utensils are all risky. It can also live on surfaces, such as plastic and steel, for up to 72 hours, meaning people can catch it by touching contaminated surfaces.

Originally, people were thought to be catching it from a live animal market in Wuhan city. But cases soon began to emerge in people who had never been there, which forced medics to realise it was spreading from person to person. 

What does the virus do to you? What are the symptoms?

Once someone has caught the COVID-19 virus it may take between two and 14 days, or even longer, for them to show any symptoms – but they may still be contagious during this time.

If and when they do become ill, typical signs include a runny nose, a cough, sore throat and a fever (high temperature). The vast majority of patients will recover from these without any issues, and many will need no medical help at all.

In a small group of patients, who seem mainly to be the elderly or those with long-term illnesses, it can lead to pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection in which the insides of the lungs swell up and fill with fluid. It makes it increasingly difficult to breathe and, if left untreated, can be fatal and suffocate people.

Figures are showing that young children do not seem to be particularly badly affected by the virus, which they say is peculiar considering their susceptibility to flu, but it is not clear why. 

What have genetic tests revealed about the virus? 

Scientists in China have recorded the genetic sequences of around 19 strains of the virus and released them to experts working around the world. 

This allows others to study them, develop tests and potentially look into treating the illness they cause.   

Examinations have revealed the coronavirus did not change much – changing is known as mutating – much during the early stages of its spread.

However, the director-general of China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Gao Fu, said the virus was mutating and adapting as it spread through people.

This means efforts to study the virus and to potentially control it may be made extra difficult because the virus might look different every time scientists analyse it.   

More study may be able to reveal whether the virus first infected a small number of people then change and spread from them, or whether there were various versions of the virus coming from animals which have developed separately.

How dangerous is the virus?  

The virus has a death rate of around two per cent. This is a similar death rate to the Spanish Flu outbreak which, in 1918, went on to kill around 50million people.

Experts have been conflicted since the beginning of the outbreak about whether the true number of people who are infected is significantly higher than the official numbers of recorded cases. Some people are expected to have such mild symptoms that they never even realise they are ill unless they’re tested, so only the more serious cases get discovered, making the death toll seem higher than it really is.

However, an investigation into government surveillance in China said it had found no reason to believe this was true.

Dr Bruce Aylward, a World Health Organization official who went on a mission to China, said there was no evidence that figures were only showing the tip of the iceberg, and said recording appeared to be accurate, Stat News reported.

Can the virus be cured? 

The COVID-19 virus cannot be cured and it is proving difficult to contain.

Antibiotics do not work against viruses, so they are out of the question. Antiviral drugs can work, but the process of understanding a virus then developing and producing drugs to treat it would take years and huge amounts of money.

No vaccine exists for the coronavirus yet and it’s not likely one will be developed in time to be of any use in this outbreak, for similar reasons to the above.

The National Institutes of Health in the US, and Baylor University in Waco, Texas, say they are working on a vaccine based on what they know about coronaviruses in general, using information from the SARS outbreak. But this may take a year or more to develop, according to Pharmaceutical Technology.

Currently, governments and health authorities are working to contain the virus and to care for patients who are sick and stop them infecting other people.

People who catch the illness are being quarantined in hospitals, where their symptoms can be treated and they will be away from the uninfected public.

And airports around the world are putting in place screening measures such as having doctors on-site, taking people’s temperatures to check for fevers and using thermal screening to spot those who might be ill (infection causes a raised temperature).

However, it can take weeks for symptoms to appear, so there is only a small likelihood that patients will be spotted up in an airport.

Is this outbreak an epidemic or a pandemic?   

The outbreak was declared a pandemic on March 11. A pandemic is defined by the World Health Organization as the ‘worldwide spread of a new disease’. 

Previously, the UN agency said most cases outside of Hubei had been ‘spillover’ from the epicentre, so the disease wasn’t actually spreading actively around the world.

 

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